2008 European Union stimulus plan
- For a broader view of policy responses to the global economic slowdown, see 2008-2009 Keynesian resurgence.
On 26 November 2008, the European Commission proposed a European stimulus plan amounting to 200 billion euros to cope with the effects of the global financial crisis on the economies of the members countries. It aims at limiting the economic slowdown of the economies through national economic policies, with measures extended over a period of two years.
Presentation of the plan
The European Commission presented on 26 November a plan to cope with the current economic crisis in the 27 member countries of the Union.
The plan combines short-term measures to stimulate demand and maintain jobs and longer-term measures to invest in strategical sectors, including research and innovation. The aim is to promote growth and ensure sustainable prosperity.
The plan includes targeted and temporary measures amounting to 200 billion euros, or 1.5% of EU GDP, using both the national budgets of the national governments, the budget of the EU and that of the European Investment Bank. The plan is scheduled on a period of two years.
The plan includes a broad range of actions at national level and at EU level to help households and industrial firms (particularly automobile and construction).
The measures include:
- reflation: the Commission will allow Member States to break the Stability and Growth Pact for two or three years.
- incentives to investment: the plan outlines measures to encourage the fight against climate change and promotes strategic investments in buildings and energy efficient technologies.
- lower rates: the ECB is invited to drop its rates.
- tax rebates: lowering taxation on green technology and eco-friendly cars, accompanied by scrappage programs
- social measures: the Commission proposed the governments to temporarily increase unemployment benefits and their duration, to increase allowances to households, to lower taxes on low incomes, to lower social security contributions paid on low wages by employers, to reduce labour costs paid by employees with low incomes, to provide subsidised loans or credit guarantees for companies, to reduce temporarily the VAT rate to support consumption. The Commission announced it would adopt by mid-March 2009 a proposal to lower VAT rates for services with high labour-intensiveness (such as catering).
National plans are often close to 1.2 percentage points of GDP, as recommended by the European Commission, and are focused on 2008 and 2009. However, Germany and Spain have announced fiscal stimulus of respectively 3.3% (two plans altogether) and 3.7% of their GDP.
The plan announced by the European Commission at the end of November recommended measures to revive the economy but did not specify much the nature of the plans. Some plans are focused on the stimulation of demand (United Kingdom, to a lesser extent Spain, Italy or the second German plan), other plans insist more in incentives to supply (French plan, first German plan ).
Measures took on expenditure to improve demand generally include measures to support medium-term growth through increased public spending on infrastructures (road networks and railway) and aids to the housing sector (notably construction and renovation). Several countries have also announced short-term measures to relieve the effects of the crisis on the poorest people (increase in benefits and allowances to households with low incomes and unemployed). However, these aids have often limited effects on the economy, because their amounts are insignificant.
Other measures affected national taxation systems. The UK was the only country that opted for a temporary decline in the standard VAT rate, by 2.5 percentage points. In Germany, employer contributions were lowered. Most plans include incentive measures to SMEs and development of green energy.
|Country||Date||Type||Amount in billion euros (% of GDP)||Measures|
|Germany||November 2008||first plan||32 (1.3%)||82 (3.3%)||
|January 2009||second plan||50 (2%)||
|France||December 2008||stimulus plan||26 (1.3%)||
|Spain||April 2008||election pledges||20 bn (1%)||40 (3.7%)||
|August 2008||first plan||20||
|November 2008||second plan||10.9||
|Italy||May 2008||election pledges||9 (0.6%)||
|November 2008||anti-crisis plan||
|Netherlands||September 2008||budget bill||2.5 (0.4%)||8.5 (1.4%)||
|November 2008||stimulus plan||6 (1%)||
|United Kingdom||September 2008||urgency measures||£1 billion||£31 bn (2.2%)||
|November 2008||stimulus plan||£20 billion||
|January 2009||additional measures||£10 billion||
- Kick-starting the economy, European Commission. Accessed 2009-03-21. Archived 2009-05-21.
- The Commission launches a major Recovery Plan for growth and jobs, to boost demand and restore confidence in the European economy, Europa, 26 November 2008 . Accessed 2009-03-21. Archived 2009-05-21.
- A European Economic Recovery Plan by the European Commission
- Cutting red tape on VAT, European Commission. Accessed 2009-03-21. Archived 2009-05-21.